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Monday February 10, 2020

It's been an exciting couple of years for the ASI Journal Clinical & Translational Immunology with the recent announcement of our first ever CTI Impact Factor of 7.271!

We invite you to spend some time looking at the papers that ranked as our top cited publications for 2018 & 2019:

Recent novel approaches to limit oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic complications

Raelene J Pickering, Carlos J Rosado, Arpeeta Sharma, Shareefa Buksh, Mitchel Tate, Judy B de Haan.

Diabetes is considered a major burden on the healthcare system of Western and non‐Western societies with the disease reaching epidemic proportions globally. Diabetic patients are highly susceptible to developing micro‐ and macrovascular complications, which contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality rates. Over the past decade, a plethora of research has demonstrated that oxidative stress and inflammation are intricately linked and significant drivers of these diabetic complications. Thus, the focus now has been towards specific mechanism‐based strategies that can target both oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways to improve the outcome of disease burden. This review will focus on the mechanisms that drive these diabetic complications and the feasibility of emerging new therapies to combat oxidative stress and inflammation in the diabetic milieu.

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Human FOXP3(+) T regulatory cell heterogeneity

Audrey Mohr, Rajneesh Malhotra, Gaell Mayer, Guy Gorochov, Makoto Miyara.
FOXP3‐expressing CD4+ T regulatory (Treg) cells are instrumental for the maintenance of self‐tolerance. They are also involved in the prevention of allergy, allograft rejection, foetal rejection during pregnancy and of exaggerated immune response towards commensal pathogens in mucosal tissues. They can also prevent immune responses against tumors and promote tumor progression. FOXP3‐expressing Treg cells are not a homogenous population. The different subsets of Treg cells can have different functions or roles in the maintenance of immune homeostasis and can therefore be differentially targeted in the management of autoimmune diseases or in cancer. We discuss here how Treg cell subsets can be differentiated phenotypically, functionally and developmentally in humans.

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Genome‐wide association studies in Crohn's disease: Past, present and future

Bram Verstockt, Kenneth GC Smith, James C Lee.

Over the course of the past decade, genome‐wide association studies (GWAS) have revolutionised our understanding of complex disease genetics. One of the diseases that has benefitted most from this technology has been Crohn's disease (CD), with the identification of autophagy, the IL‐17/IL‐23 axis and innate lymphoid cells as key players in CD pathogenesis. Our increasing understanding of the genetic architecture of CD has also highlighted how a failure to suppress aberrant immune responses may contribute to disease development – a realisation that is now being incorporated into the design of new treatments. However, despite these successes, a significant proportion of disease heritability remains unexplained...

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Oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress in respiratory disease

Alice C‐H Chen, Lucy Burr, Michael A McGuckin.

Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are related states that can occur in cells as part of normal physiology but occur frequently in diseases involving inflammation. In this article, we review recent findings relating to the role of oxidative and ER stress in the pathophysiology of acute and chronic nonmalignant diseases of the lung, including infections, cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and asthma. We also explore the potential of drugs targeting oxidative and ER stress pathways to alleviate disease.

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Regulatory T cells in renal disease

Maliha A Alikhan, Megan Huynh, A Richard Kitching, Joshua D Ooi.

The kidney is vulnerable to injury, both acute and chronic from a variety of immune and metabolic insults, all of which at least to some degree involve inflammation. Regulatory T cells modulate systemic autoimmune and allogenic responses in glomerulonephritis and transplantation. Intrarenal regulatory T cells (Tregs), including those recruited to the kidney, have suppressive effects on both adaptive and innate immune cells, and probably also intrinsic kidney cells. Evidence from autoimmune glomerulonephritis implicates antigen‐specific Tregs in HLA‐mediated dominant protection, while in several human renal diseases Tregs are abnormal in number or phenotype. Experimentally, Tregs can protect the kidney from injury in a variety of renal diseases. Mechanisms of Treg recruitment to the kidney include via the chemokine receptors CCR6 and CXCR3 and potentially, at least in innate injury TLR9. The effects of Tregs may be context dependent, with evidence for roles for immunoregulatory roles both for endogenous Tbet‐expressing Tregs and STAT‐3‐expressing Tregs in experimental glomerulonephritis. Most experimental work and some of the ongoing human trials in renal transplantation have focussed on unfractionated thymically derived Tregs (tTregs). However, induced Tregs (iTregs), type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells and in particular antigen‐specific Tregs also have therapeutic potential not only in renal transplantation, but also in other kidney diseases.

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